Editing criteria

Most of the editing criteria applied in Universo Cantigas correspond to the editing guidelines agreed in 2006 by a committee of experts in medieval Galician-Portuguese poetry (see Ferreiro, Martínez Pereiro and Tato Fontaíña 2007).
0. General criteria
1. Square brackets are used to indicate the addition of text missing or absent from the original manuscript by reason of error or lacuna, or for the avoidance of repetition (e.g. refrains).
2. Refrains are highlighted in italics.
3. Updates to text: upper and lower-case letters, simple typeface to facilitate understanding and/or interpretation of the text, inverted commas and dialogue dashes, etc.
4. Question (?) and exclamation (!) marks are used in end position only.
I. Regularisation, standardisation and redistribution of spellings
  • 1. Systematic regularisation of the following spellings:
    • vocalic:
    •     <u, v> /u/ > u: qve > que, vn > un
    •     <i, y, j> /i/ > i: ley > lei, uayamos > vaiamos, mjn > min, hy > i, soya > soia
    •     <h> /i/ > i: mha > mia, servha > sérvia, sabhã > sábian
    • consonantal:
    •     <u, v> /ß/~/v/ > v: uiuer > viver
    •     <i, y, j> /ʒ/ > j ~ g: ia > ja, oye > oje, monje > monge
  • 2. Regularisation of the spelling of lateral palatal consonant /ʎ/ and nasal /ɲ/:
    • as <lh, nh> in cantigas for which BV are the main source manuscripts (nulho, senhor).
    • as <ll, nn> in cantigas transmitted by A and N only (nullo, sennor).
    • in ‘mixed’ cantigas (i.e. text fragments in A which are completed by B or BV), /l/ and /ɲ/ are represented according to the convention used in the main source text.
  • 3. Redistribution of <s/ss, c/ç, z, g/j> according to conventional spelling patterns (ç+a, o, u; c+e, i…): ssair > sair, çedo > cedo, oge > oje, monje > monge, etc.
    • Preservation of etymological initial <ç> (çapato) and other historical spellings which differ from their modern variants (enserrar).
    • Preservation of sibilant spellings of uncertain etymology or pronunciation, e.g. mezquinho/mesquinho, cĩisa/cĩiza.
    • Preservation of original final consonant following vocalic elision before a word starting with a vowel, e.g. faç’i (= faço i), amig’e (= amigo e), log’eu (= logo eu), vosc’e (= vosco e).
  • 4. Standardisation of spellings <gu/g> /g/ (roguar > rogar, gerra > guerra), <g/j> /ʒ/ (ango > anjo), and <r/rr/ir> /ɾ/ and /r/ (guera > guerra, moirer > morrer), but not in the case of significant phonetic variation [g/gw] (gualardon/galardon, guardar/gardar…)
  • 5. Standardisation and redistribution of initial and medial <h> /ø/:
    • Elimination of (etymological and non-etymological) initial <h->: hy > i, hu > u, hũa > ũa, heu > eu; ham ~ han > an, home > ome.
    • Elimination of intervocalic <-h->: Johan > Joan, ũha > ũa, veher > veer, vehestes > veestes.
    • Accommodation of the spelling of <nen hun, nenhun…> to nen un (cf. neun, neũu…)
  • 6. Simplification and modernising regularisation:
    • of geminated consonants in all positions (<ff-, -ff-, -cc-, rr-, ss-, -tt-> etc.), with the exception of intervocalic <-ss-> /s/ and <-rr-> /r/: ffazer > fazer, affan > afan, peccado ~ p̄ccado > pecado, conssigo > consigo, onrra > onra, rrogar > rogar, ella > ela, attender > atender (vs passo, guerra).
    • of phonologically irrelevant Latinising consonantal groups and elements: absconder > asconder, et > e, dicto > dito, sancta > santa.
    • of distorting letter sequences <th; qu, ch; ph…> /t, k, f/: e.g. barqua > barca (but quando/cando), Theophilo > Teofilo.
    • of non-etymological pseudo-Latin consonant groups: e.g. escrepver > escrever, dapno > dano.
  • 7. Expansion of the abbreviation <-ꝯ> as -us or -os, as appropriate (e.g. meus vs nossos), and substitution of nos, vos, nossos, levamos… for sporadically occurring <-us> variants nus, vus, nossus, levamus.
II. Hiatus
1. Preservation of etymological hiatus: caente, creer, maa, poos, veerei
2. Preservation of vocalic hiatus sequence, even when the metre indicates a monosyllabic pronunciation (veerei/verei, bõo~boo/bon, sõo~soo/son, ũu/um…), and in third-person singular past tense verb endings in the second and third conjugations (vio/viu, vendeo/vendeu, etc.)
3. Simplification of sporadic, purely orthographically geminated vowels, particularly in relation to the sequences [-ao] and [-ão]: aveeo > aveo, maao > mao, maão > mão, naturaaes > naturaes, uylaão > vilão.
III. Representation of nasals and nasality
  • Nasal vowels:
    • Preservation of nasal tilde on phonologically nasal vowels, correction of position of tilde if displaced to the vowel before or after, and restriction of tilde to the nasal vowel when used on two or more vowels: irmãa, irmão, bõo, tẽer, vĩir, etc.
    • Substitution of nasal tilde for intervocalic <n> to indicate phonological nasality (bona > bõa, poner > põer), except in deliberately archaic usages found in the cantigas de amigo: irmana, louçana, sano, pino, amena, arena, etc.
    • Substitution of nasal tilde for implosive nasal consonant to indicate phonological nasality (doando > dõado, unha > ũa), and preservation of nasal tilde on forms with a modern variant containing a nasal consonant: vĩides / viindes.
    • Preservation of co-occurrence of nasal and oral forms, sometimes even within the same composition, due to the contemporary process of denasalisation in the language (e.g. bõa / boa).
  • Nasal consonants:
    • Expansion of nasal tilde as <n> in both medial and word-final position when used as an abbreviation of a nasal consonant (quãdo > quando, cõ > con), except before <p> and <b>, where <m> is used (tenpo > tempo, nenbrar > nembrar), and transcription of word-final <-m> and sporadic implosive medial <m> as <n>: com > con, auem > aven, premder > prender
    • Substitution of nasal consonant for nasal tilde when used to indicate an explosive nasal consonant: descõunal > descomunal, dõa > dona, ẽ eu > e meu; vĩo > vinho, fremosĩa > fremosinha.
    • Expansion of nasal tilde when used as an abbreviation of a nasal consonant in certain agglutinated, assimilated forms of the article: ẽno > en no, cõno > con no, quẽno > quen no.
IV. Agglutination/deglutination of lexical elements
1. Word division according to present-day usage, with the exception of certain specific older uses: toda via, por én, des i, a dur ~ de dur
2. Preservation of older variants of modern agglutinated forms: con migo (vs comigo, contigo, convosco), des oimais… and preservation of distinction between significant pairs, such as demais vs de máis, enquanto vs en quanto, porque vs por que, senon vs se non, etc.
V. Punctuation marks
  • Apostrophe:
    • in the syntactic-phonetic elision of the final vowel: d’amor, nunc’amou, vej’e, m’eu
    • in crases involving the preposition de and indefinite articles and pronouns, the adverbs aqui and ali, and the article el (d’un, d’outro, d’algun, d’algo; d’aqui, d’ali; d’el-Rei). The apostrophe should not be used in crases involving the preposition de and the article o(s), a(s) or the demonstrative or personal pronouns el(e), ela, elo: do, deste, del(e), etc., or in contracted forms of the pronoun, such as mo, to ~ cho, lho.
    • where the preposition de contracts with the article or pronoun o(s), a(s) or with the preposition a: punhei sempre d’o seu amor gaar; non me partirán d’o amar.
    • in the combination of the adverb non with the pronoun me ~ mi, to mark the assimilation of nm > m: no’me ~ no’mi.
  • Hyphen:
    • in the assimilated form of the article after -r and -s (sabede-lo mal que mi ven, de-lo dia, todo-los, mai-lo, Deu-lo…), even when the first element is unshortened in the original: pois-lo, todos-los, Deus-lo, bever-los vinhos, miraremos-las ondas. The agglutinated form polo/pelo is maintained, together with its conservative variant (porlo, perlo).
    • in the combination of the article el with the noun Rei (el-Rei).
    • in the combination of enclitic and mesoclitic pronouns with the corresponding verb form (façamo-lo; provar-vos-an, perder-m’-ei, loar-mi-o-edes, contar-vo-lo-ei), and in other pronominal agglutinations, both common, even monosyllabic forms (e.g. mi-o, mi-a; vo-lo…) and less frequent occurrences, as in a vó-lo devo.
    • in the combination of the preposition por with the pronoun o(s), a(s) (fora po-lo dizer eu).
    • to mark the perfective intensifying particle per- (per-fazer, per-desasperar…)
    • The hyphen is also recommended in certain indefinite pronominal agglutinations, such as ja-que, ja-quanto, ja-u, que-quer, quen-quer, quis-quanto, etc.
VI. Accentuation
1. Accentuation is only used for diacritic purposes, e.g. á, dé, nós, vós, én, sén, éste, esté, é, dá, lá, mí, máis, seí, terrá, está, sérvia (vs servia), ouví (vs ouvi ~ ouve), etc., and in the P1, P2, P3 and P6 future forms of regular and semi-regular verbs: oirá(s) vs. oira(s), oirán vs oiran; temera vs temerá; podera(n) vs poderá(n).
2. A grave accent is used to indicate the crasis à(s).
3. A circumflex accent is used for diacritic purposes to indicate a closed vowel (cortês vs cortes, medês vs medes, chôvia vs chovia, pôde vs pode, pôs vs pos, etc.).